from small one page howto to huge articles all in one place
 

search text in:





Poll
Which filesystem do you use?






poll results

Last additions:
using iotop to find disk usage hogs

using iotop to find disk usage hogs

words:

887

views:

108797

userrating:

average rating: 1.7 (85 votes) (1=very good 6=terrible)


May 25th. 2007:
Words

486

Views

222898

why adblockers are bad


Workaround and fixes for the current Core Dump Handling vulnerability affected kernels

Workaround and fixes for the current Core Dump Handling vulnerability affected kernels

words:

161

views:

103153

userrating:

average rating: 1.3 (28 votes) (1=very good 6=terrible)


April, 26th. 2006:

Druckversion
You are here: manpages





SSHD_CONFIG

Section: File Formats (5)
Index Return to Main Contents

BSD mandoc
 

NAME

sshd_config - OpenSSH SSH daemon configuration file  

SYNOPSIS

/etc/ssh/sshd_config  

DESCRIPTION

sshd(8) reads configuration data from /etc/ssh/sshd_config (or the file specified with -f on the command line). The file contains keyword-argument pairs, one per line. Lines starting with `#' and empty lines are interpreted as comments. Arguments may optionally be enclosed in double quotes () in order to represent arguments containing spaces.

The possible keywords and their meanings are as follows (note that keywords are case-insensitive and arguments are case-sensitive):

AcceptEnv
Specifies what environment variables sent by the client will be copied into the session's environ(7). See SendEnv in ssh_config5 for how to configure the client. The TERM environment variable is always sent whenever the client requests a pseudo-terminal as it is required by the protocol. Variables are specified by name, which may contain the wildcard characters `*' and `?' Multiple environment variables may be separated by whitespace or spread across multiple AcceptEnv directives. Be warned that some environment variables could be used to bypass restricted user environments. For this reason, care should be taken in the use of this directive. The default is not to accept any environment variables.
AddressFamily
Specifies which address family should be used by sshd(8). Valid arguments are any (the default), inet (use IPv4 only), or inet6 (use IPv6 only).
AllowAgentForwarding
Specifies whether ssh-agent1 forwarding is permitted. The default is yes Note that disabling agent forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access, as they can always install their own forwarders.
AllowGroups
This keyword can be followed by a list of group name patterns, separated by spaces. If specified, login is allowed only for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns. Only group names are valid; a numerical group ID is not recognized. By default, login is allowed for all groups. The allow/deny directives are processed in the following order: DenyUsers AllowUsers DenyGroups and finally AllowGroups

See PATTERNS in ssh_config5 for more information on patterns.

AllowStreamLocalForwarding
Specifies whether StreamLocal (Unix-domain socket) forwarding is permitted. The available options are yes (the default) or all to allow StreamLocal forwarding, no to prevent all StreamLocal forwarding, local to allow local (from the perspective of ssh(1)) forwarding only or remote to allow remote forwarding only. Note that disabling StreamLocal forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access, as they can always install their own forwarders.
AllowTcpForwarding
Specifies whether TCP forwarding is permitted. The available options are yes (the default) or all to allow TCP forwarding, no to prevent all TCP forwarding, local to allow local (from the perspective of ssh(1)) forwarding only or remote to allow remote forwarding only. Note that disabling TCP forwarding does not improve security unless users are also denied shell access, as they can always install their own forwarders.
AllowUsers
This keyword can be followed by a list of user name patterns, separated by spaces. If specified, login is allowed only for user names that match one of the patterns. Only user names are valid; a numerical user ID is not recognized. By default, login is allowed for all users. If the pattern takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked, restricting logins to particular users from particular hosts. HOST criteria may additionally contain addresses to match in CIDR address/masklen format. The allow/deny directives are processed in the following order: DenyUsers AllowUsers DenyGroups and finally AllowGroups

See PATTERNS in ssh_config5 for more information on patterns.

AuthenticationMethods
Specifies the authentication methods that must be successfully completed for a user to be granted access. This option must be followed by one or more comma-separated lists of authentication method names, or by the single string any to indicate the default behaviour of accepting any single authentication method. If the default is overridden, then successful authentication requires completion of every method in at least one of these lists.

For example, Qq publickey,password publickey,keyboard-interactive would require the user to complete public key authentication, followed by either password or keyboard interactive authentication. Only methods that are next in one or more lists are offered at each stage, so for this example it would not be possible to attempt password or keyboard-interactive authentication before public key.

For keyboard interactive authentication it is also possible to restrict authentication to a specific device by appending a colon followed by the device identifier bsdauth pam or skey depending on the server configuration. For example, Qq keyboard-interactive:bsdauth would restrict keyboard interactive authentication to the bsdauth device.

If the publickey method is listed more than once, sshd(8) verifies that keys that have been used successfully are not reused for subsequent authentications. For example, Qq publickey,publickey requires successful authentication using two different public keys.

Note that each authentication method listed should also be explicitly enabled in the configuration.

AuthorizedKeysCommand
Specifies a program to be used to look up the user's public keys. The program must be owned by root, not writable by group or others and specified by an absolute path. Arguments to AuthorizedKeysCommand accept the tokens described in the Sx TOKENS section. If no arguments are specified then the username of the target user is used.

The program should produce on standard output zero or more lines of authorized_keys output (see Sx AUTHORIZED_KEYS in sshd(8)). If a key supplied by AuthorizedKeysCommand does not successfully authenticate and authorize the user then public key authentication continues using the usual AuthorizedKeysFile files. By default, no AuthorizedKeysCommand is run.

AuthorizedKeysCommandUser
Specifies the user under whose account the AuthorizedKeysCommand is run. It is recommended to use a dedicated user that has no other role on the host than running authorized keys commands. If AuthorizedKeysCommand is specified but AuthorizedKeysCommandUser is not, then sshd(8) will refuse to start.
AuthorizedKeysFile
Specifies the file that contains the public keys used for user authentication. The format is described in the Sx AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT section of sshd(8). Arguments to AuthorizedKeysFile accept the tokens described in the Sx TOKENS section. After expansion, AuthorizedKeysFile is taken to be an absolute path or one relative to the user's home directory. Multiple files may be listed, separated by whitespace. Alternately this option may be set to none to skip checking for user keys in files. The default is Qq .ssh/authorized_keys .ssh/authorized_keys2 .
AuthorizedPrincipalsCommand
Specifies a program to be used to generate the list of allowed certificate principals as per AuthorizedPrincipalsFile The program must be owned by root, not writable by group or others and specified by an absolute path. Arguments to AuthorizedPrincipalsCommand accept the tokens described in the Sx TOKENS section. If no arguments are specified then the username of the target user is used.

The program should produce on standard output zero or more lines of AuthorizedPrincipalsFile output. If either AuthorizedPrincipalsCommand or AuthorizedPrincipalsFile is specified, then certificates offered by the client for authentication must contain a principal that is listed. By default, no AuthorizedPrincipalsCommand is run.

AuthorizedPrincipalsCommandUser
Specifies the user under whose account the AuthorizedPrincipalsCommand is run. It is recommended to use a dedicated user that has no other role on the host than running authorized principals commands. If AuthorizedPrincipalsCommand is specified but AuthorizedPrincipalsCommandUser is not, then sshd(8) will refuse to start.
AuthorizedPrincipalsFile
Specifies a file that lists principal names that are accepted for certificate authentication. When using certificates signed by a key listed in TrustedUserCAKeys this file lists names, one of which must appear in the certificate for it to be accepted for authentication. Names are listed one per line preceded by key options (as described in Sx AUTHORIZED_KEYS FILE FORMAT in sshd(8)). Empty lines and comments starting with `#' are ignored.

Arguments to AuthorizedPrincipalsFile accept the tokens described in the Sx TOKENS section. After expansion, AuthorizedPrincipalsFile is taken to be an absolute path or one relative to the user's home directory. The default is none i.e. not to use a principals file - in this case, the username of the user must appear in a certificate's principals list for it to be accepted.

Note that AuthorizedPrincipalsFile is only used when authentication proceeds using a CA listed in TrustedUserCAKeys and is not consulted for certification authorities trusted via ~/.ssh/authorized_keys though the principals= key option offers a similar facility (see sshd(8) for details).

Banner
The contents of the specified file are sent to the remote user before authentication is allowed. If the argument is none then no banner is displayed. By default, no banner is displayed.
ChallengeResponseAuthentication
Specifies whether challenge-response authentication is allowed (e.g. via PAM or through authentication styles supported in login.conf5) The default is yes
ChrootDirectory
Specifies the pathname of a directory to chroot(2) to after authentication. At session startup sshd(8) checks that all components of the pathname are root-owned directories which are not writable by any other user or group. After the chroot, sshd(8) changes the working directory to the user's home directory. Arguments to ChrootDirectory accept the tokens described in the Sx TOKENS section.

The ChrootDirectory must contain the necessary files and directories to support the user's session. For an interactive session this requires at least a shell, typically sh(1), and basic /dev nodes such as null(4), zero(4), stdin(4), stdout(4), stderr(4), and tty(4) devices. For file transfer sessions using SFTP no additional configuration of the environment is necessary if the in-process sftp-server is used, though sessions which use logging may require /dev/log inside the chroot directory on some operating systems (see sftp-server8 for details).

For safety, it is very important that the directory hierarchy be prevented from modification by other processes on the system (especially those outside the jail). Misconfiguration can lead to unsafe environments which sshd(8) cannot detect.

The default is none indicating not to chroot(2).

Ciphers
Specifies the ciphers allowed. Multiple ciphers must be comma-separated. If the specified value begins with a `+' character, then the specified ciphers will be appended to the default set instead of replacing them. If the specified value begins with a `-' character, then the specified ciphers (including wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of replacing them.

The supported ciphers are:

3des-cbc
aes128-cbc
aes192-cbc
aes256-cbc
aes128-ctr
aes192-ctr
aes256-ctr
aes128-gcm@openssh.com
aes256-gcm@openssh.com
arcfour
arcfour128
arcfour256
blowfish-cbc
cast128-cbc
chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com

The default is:

chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,
aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,
aes128-gcm@openssh.com,aes256-gcm@openssh.com

The list of available ciphers may also be obtained using Qq ssh -Q cipher .

ClientAliveCountMax
Sets the number of client alive messages which may be sent without sshd(8) receiving any messages back from the client. If this threshold is reached while client alive messages are being sent, sshd will disconnect the client, terminating the session. It is important to note that the use of client alive messages is very different from TCPKeepAlive The client alive messages are sent through the encrypted channel and therefore will not be spoofable. The TCP keepalive option enabled by TCPKeepAlive is spoofable. The client alive mechanism is valuable when the client or server depend on knowing when a connection has become inactive.

The default value is 3. If ClientAliveInterval is set to 15, and ClientAliveCountMax is left at the default, unresponsive SSH clients will be disconnected after approximately 45 seconds.

ClientAliveInterval
Sets a timeout interval in seconds after which if no data has been received from the client, sshd(8) will send a message through the encrypted channel to request a response from the client. The default is 0, indicating that these messages will not be sent to the client.
Compression
Specifies whether compression is enabled after the user has authenticated successfully. The argument must be yes delayed (a legacy synonym for yes or no The default is yes
DenyGroups
This keyword can be followed by a list of group name patterns, separated by spaces. Login is disallowed for users whose primary group or supplementary group list matches one of the patterns. Only group names are valid; a numerical group ID is not recognized. By default, login is allowed for all groups. The allow/deny directives are processed in the following order: DenyUsers AllowUsers DenyGroups and finally AllowGroups

See PATTERNS in ssh_config5 for more information on patterns.

DenyUsers
This keyword can be followed by a list of user name patterns, separated by spaces. Login is disallowed for user names that match one of the patterns. Only user names are valid; a numerical user ID is not recognized. By default, login is allowed for all users. If the pattern takes the form USER@HOST then USER and HOST are separately checked, restricting logins to particular users from particular hosts. HOST criteria may additionally contain addresses to match in CIDR address/masklen format. The allow/deny directives are processed in the following order: DenyUsers AllowUsers DenyGroups and finally AllowGroups

See PATTERNS in ssh_config5 for more information on patterns.

DisableForwarding
Disables all forwarding features, including X11, ssh-agent1, TCP and StreamLocal. This option overrides all other forwarding-related options and may simplify restricted configurations.
FingerprintHash
Specifies the hash algorithm used when logging key fingerprints. Valid options are: md5 and sha256 The default is sha256
ForceCommand
Forces the execution of the command specified by ForceCommand ignoring any command supplied by the client and ~/.ssh/rc if present. The command is invoked by using the user's login shell with the -c option. This applies to shell, command, or subsystem execution. It is most useful inside a Match block. The command originally supplied by the client is available in the SSH_ORIGINAL_COMMAND environment variable. Specifying a command of internal-sftp will force the use of an in-process SFTP server that requires no support files when used with ChrootDirectory The default is none
GatewayPorts
Specifies whether remote hosts are allowed to connect to ports forwarded for the client. By default, sshd(8) binds remote port forwardings to the loopback address. This prevents other remote hosts from connecting to forwarded ports. GatewayPorts can be used to specify that sshd should allow remote port forwardings to bind to non-loopback addresses, thus allowing other hosts to connect. The argument may be no to force remote port forwardings to be available to the local host only, yes to force remote port forwardings to bind to the wildcard address, or clientspecified to allow the client to select the address to which the forwarding is bound. The default is no
GSSAPIAuthentication
Specifies whether user authentication based on GSSAPI is allowed. The default is no
GSSAPICleanupCredentials
Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's credentials cache on logout. The default is yes
GSSAPIStrictAcceptorCheck
Determines whether to be strict about the identity of the GSSAPI acceptor a client authenticates against. If set to yes then the client must authenticate against the host service on the current hostname. If set to no then the client may authenticate against any service key stored in the machine's default store. This facility is provided to assist with operation on multi homed machines. The default is yes
HostbasedAcceptedKeyTypes
Specifies the key types that will be accepted for hostbased authentication as a comma-separated pattern list. Alternately if the specified value begins with a `+' character, then the specified key types will be appended to the default set instead of replacing them. If the specified value begins with a `-' character, then the specified key types (including wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of replacing them. The default for this option is:
ecdsa-sha2-nistp256-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ecdsa-sha2-nistp384-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ecdsa-sha2-nistp521-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ssh-ed25519-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ssh-rsa-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521,
ssh-ed25519,ssh-rsa

The list of available key types may also be obtained using Qq ssh -Q key .

HostbasedAuthentication
Specifies whether rhosts or /etc/hosts.equiv authentication together with successful public key client host authentication is allowed (host-based authentication). The default is no
HostbasedUsesNameFromPacketOnly
Specifies whether or not the server will attempt to perform a reverse name lookup when matching the name in the ~/.shosts ~/.rhosts and /etc/hosts.equiv files during HostbasedAuthentication A setting of yes means that sshd(8) uses the name supplied by the client rather than attempting to resolve the name from the TCP connection itself. The default is no
HostCertificate
Specifies a file containing a public host certificate. The certificate's public key must match a private host key already specified by HostKey The default behaviour of sshd(8) is not to load any certificates.
HostKey
Specifies a file containing a private host key used by SSH. The defaults are /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ed25519_key and /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key

Note that sshd(8) will refuse to use a file if it is group/world-accessible and that the HostKeyAlgorithms option restricts which of the keys are actually used by sshd(8).

It is possible to have multiple host key files. It is also possible to specify public host key files instead. In this case operations on the private key will be delegated to an ssh-agent1.

HostKeyAgent
Identifies the UNIX-domain socket used to communicate with an agent that has access to the private host keys. If the string Qq SSH_AUTH_SOCK is specified, the location of the socket will be read from the SSH_AUTH_SOCK environment variable.
HostKeyAlgorithms
Specifies the host key algorithms that the server offers. The default for this option is:
ecdsa-sha2-nistp256-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ecdsa-sha2-nistp384-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ecdsa-sha2-nistp521-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ssh-ed25519-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ssh-rsa-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521,
ssh-ed25519,ssh-rsa

The list of available key types may also be obtained using Qq ssh -Q key .

IgnoreRhosts
Specifies that .rhosts and .shosts files will not be used in HostbasedAuthentication

/etc/hosts.equiv and /etc/ssh/shosts.equiv are still used. The default is yes

IgnoreUserKnownHosts
Specifies whether sshd(8) should ignore the user's ~/.ssh/known_hosts during HostbasedAuthentication The default is no
IPQoS
Specifies the IPv4 type-of-service or DSCP class for the connection. Accepted values are af11 af12 af13 af21 af22 af23 af31 af32 af33 af41 af42 af43 cs0 cs1 cs2 cs3 cs4 cs5 cs6 cs7 ef lowdelay throughput reliability or a numeric value. This option may take one or two arguments, separated by whitespace. If one argument is specified, it is used as the packet class unconditionally. If two values are specified, the first is automatically selected for interactive sessions and the second for non-interactive sessions. The default is lowdelay for interactive sessions and throughput for non-interactive sessions.
KbdInteractiveAuthentication
Specifies whether to allow keyboard-interactive authentication. The argument to this keyword must be yes or no The default is to use whatever value ChallengeResponseAuthentication is set to (by default yes )
KerberosAuthentication
Specifies whether the password provided by the user for PasswordAuthentication will be validated through the Kerberos KDC. To use this option, the server needs a Kerberos servtab which allows the verification of the KDC's identity. The default is no
KerberosGetAFSToken
If AFS is active and the user has a Kerberos 5 TGT, attempt to acquire an AFS token before accessing the user's home directory. The default is no
KerberosOrLocalPasswd
If password authentication through Kerberos fails then the password will be validated via any additional local mechanism such as /etc/passwd The default is yes
KerberosTicketCleanup
Specifies whether to automatically destroy the user's ticket cache file on logout. The default is yes
KexAlgorithms
Specifies the available KEX (Key Exchange) algorithms. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. Alternately if the specified value begins with a `+' character, then the specified methods will be appended to the default set instead of replacing them. If the specified value begins with a `-' character, then the specified methods (including wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of replacing them. The supported algorithms are:

curve25519-sha256
curve25519-sha256@libssh.org
diffie-hellman-group1-sha1
diffie-hellman-group14-sha1
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256
ecdh-sha2-nistp256
ecdh-sha2-nistp384
ecdh-sha2-nistp521

The default is:

curve25519-sha256,curve25519-sha256@libssh.org,
ecdh-sha2-nistp256,ecdh-sha2-nistp384,ecdh-sha2-nistp521,
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,
diffie-hellman-group14-sha1

The list of available key exchange algorithms may also be obtained using Qq ssh -Q kex .

ListenAddress
Specifies the local addresses sshd(8) should listen on. The following forms may be used:

ListenAddress
host | IPv4_addr | IPv6_addr
ListenAddress
host | IPv4_addr : port
ListenAddress
[host | IPv6_addr : port ]

If port is not specified, sshd will listen on the address and all Port options specified. The default is to listen on all local addresses. Multiple ListenAddress options are permitted.

LoginGraceTime
The server disconnects after this time if the user has not successfully logged in. If the value is 0, there is no time limit. The default is 120 seconds.
LogLevel
Gives the verbosity level that is used when logging messages from sshd(8). The possible values are: QUIET, FATAL, ERROR, INFO, VERBOSE, DEBUG, DEBUG1, DEBUG2, and DEBUG3. The default is INFO. DEBUG and DEBUG1 are equivalent. DEBUG2 and DEBUG3 each specify higher levels of debugging output. Logging with a DEBUG level violates the privacy of users and is not recommended.
MACs Specifies the available MAC (message authentication code) algorithms.
The MAC algorithm is used for data integrity protection. Multiple algorithms must be comma-separated. If the specified value begins with a `+' character, then the specified algorithms will be appended to the default set instead of replacing them. If the specified value begins with a `-' character, then the specified algorithms (including wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of replacing them.

The algorithms that contain Qq -etm calculate the MAC after encryption (encrypt-then-mac). These are considered safer and their use recommended. The supported MACs are:

hmac-md5
hmac-md5-96
hmac-ripemd160
hmac-sha1
hmac-sha1-96
hmac-sha2-256
hmac-sha2-512
umac-64@openssh.com
umac-128@openssh.com
hmac-md5-etm@openssh.com
hmac-md5-96-etm@openssh.com
hmac-ripemd160-etm@openssh.com
hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com
hmac-sha1-96-etm@openssh.com
hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com
hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com
umac-64-etm@openssh.com
umac-128-etm@openssh.com

The default is:

umac-64-etm@openssh.com,umac-128-etm@openssh.com,
hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com,
hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,
umac-64@openssh.com,umac-128@openssh.com,
hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512,hmac-sha1

The list of available MAC algorithms may also be obtained using Qq ssh -Q mac .

Match
Introduces a conditional block. If all of the criteria on the Match line are satisfied, the keywords on the following lines override those set in the global section of the config file, until either another Match line or the end of the file. If a keyword appears in multiple Match blocks that are satisfied, only the first instance of the keyword is applied.

The arguments to Match are one or more criteria-pattern pairs or the single token All which matches all criteria. The available criteria are User Group Host LocalAddress LocalPort and Address The match patterns may consist of single entries or comma-separated lists and may use the wildcard and negation operators described in the Sx PATTERNS section of ssh_config5.

The patterns in an Address criteria may additionally contain addresses to match in CIDR address/masklen format, such as 192.0.2.0/24 or 2001:db8::/32. Note that the mask length provided must be consistent with the address - it is an error to specify a mask length that is too long for the address or one with bits set in this host portion of the address. For example, 192.0.2.0/33 and 192.0.2.0/8, respectively.

Only a subset of keywords may be used on the lines following a Match keyword. Available keywords are AcceptEnv AllowAgentForwarding AllowGroups AllowStreamLocalForwarding AllowTcpForwarding AllowUsers AuthenticationMethods AuthorizedKeysCommand AuthorizedKeysCommandUser AuthorizedKeysFile AuthorizedPrincipalsCommand AuthorizedPrincipalsCommandUser AuthorizedPrincipalsFile Banner ChrootDirectory ClientAliveCountMax ClientAliveInterval DenyGroups DenyUsers ForceCommand GatewayPorts GSSAPIAuthentication HostbasedAcceptedKeyTypes HostbasedAuthentication HostbasedUsesNameFromPacketOnly IPQoS KbdInteractiveAuthentication KerberosAuthentication MaxAuthTries MaxSessions PasswordAuthentication PermitEmptyPasswords PermitOpen PermitRootLogin PermitTTY PermitTunnel PermitUserRC PubkeyAcceptedKeyTypes PubkeyAuthentication RekeyLimit RevokedKeys StreamLocalBindMask StreamLocalBindUnlink TrustedUserCAKeys X11DisplayOffset X11Forwarding and X11UseLocalHost

MaxAuthTries
Specifies the maximum number of authentication attempts permitted per connection. Once the number of failures reaches half this value, additional failures are logged. The default is 6.
MaxSessions
Specifies the maximum number of open shell, login or subsystem (e.g. sftp) sessions permitted per network connection. Multiple sessions may be established by clients that support connection multiplexing. Setting MaxSessions to 1 will effectively disable session multiplexing, whereas setting it to 0 will prevent all shell, login and subsystem sessions while still permitting forwarding. The default is 10.
MaxStartups
Specifies the maximum number of concurrent unauthenticated connections to the SSH daemon. Additional connections will be dropped until authentication succeeds or the LoginGraceTime expires for a connection. The default is 10:30:100.

Alternatively, random early drop can be enabled by specifying the three colon separated values start:rate:full (e.g. "10:30:60"). sshd(8) will refuse connection attempts with a probability of rate/100 (30%) if there are currently start (10) unauthenticated connections. The probability increases linearly and all connection attempts are refused if the number of unauthenticated connections reaches full (60).

PasswordAuthentication
Specifies whether password authentication is allowed. The default is yes
PermitEmptyPasswords
When password authentication is allowed, it specifies whether the server allows login to accounts with empty password strings. The default is no
PermitOpen
Specifies the destinations to which TCP port forwarding is permitted. The forwarding specification must be one of the following forms:

PermitOpen
host : port
PermitOpen
IPv4_addr : port
PermitOpen
[ IPv6_addr ] : port

Multiple forwards may be specified by separating them with whitespace. An argument of any can be used to remove all restrictions and permit any forwarding requests. An argument of none can be used to prohibit all forwarding requests. The wildcard `*' can be used for host or port to allow all hosts or ports, respectively. By default all port forwarding requests are permitted.

PermitRootLogin
Specifies whether root can log in using ssh(1). The argument must be yes prohibit-password without-password forced-commands-only or no The default is prohibit-password

If this option is set to prohibit-password or without-password password and keyboard-interactive authentication are disabled for root.

If this option is set to forced-commands-only root login with public key authentication will be allowed, but only if the command option has been specified (which may be useful for taking remote backups even if root login is normally not allowed). All other authentication methods are disabled for root.

If this option is set to no root is not allowed to log in.

PermitTTY
Specifies whether pty(4) allocation is permitted. The default is yes
PermitTunnel
Specifies whether tun(4) device forwarding is allowed. The argument must be yes point-to-point (layer 3), ethernet (layer 2), or no Specifying yes permits both point-to-point and ethernet The default is no

Independent of this setting, the permissions of the selected tun(4) device must allow access to the user.

PermitUserEnvironment
Specifies whether ~/.ssh/environment and environment= options in ~/.ssh/authorized_keys are processed by sshd(8). The default is no Enabling environment processing may enable users to bypass access restrictions in some configurations using mechanisms such as LD_PRELOAD
PermitUserRC
Specifies whether any ~/.ssh/rc file is executed. The default is yes
PidFile
Specifies the file that contains the process ID of the SSH daemon, or none to not write one. The default is /run/sshd.pid
Port
Specifies the port number that sshd(8) listens on. The default is 22. Multiple options of this type are permitted. See also ListenAddress
PrintLastLog
Specifies whether sshd(8) should print the date and time of the last user login when a user logs in interactively. The default is yes
PrintMotd
Specifies whether sshd(8) should print /etc/motd when a user logs in interactively. (On some systems it is also printed by the shell, /etc/profile or equivalent.) The default is yes
PubkeyAcceptedKeyTypes
Specifies the key types that will be accepted for public key authentication as a comma-separated pattern list. Alternately if the specified value begins with a `+' character, then the specified key types will be appended to the default set instead of replacing them. If the specified value begins with a `-' character, then the specified key types (including wildcards) will be removed from the default set instead of replacing them. The default for this option is:
ecdsa-sha2-nistp256-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ecdsa-sha2-nistp384-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ecdsa-sha2-nistp521-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ssh-ed25519-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ssh-rsa-cert-v01@openssh.com,
ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521,
ssh-ed25519,ssh-rsa

The list of available key types may also be obtained using Qq ssh -Q key .

PubkeyAuthentication
Specifies whether public key authentication is allowed. The default is yes
RekeyLimit
Specifies the maximum amount of data that may be transmitted before the session key is renegotiated, optionally followed a maximum amount of time that may pass before the session key is renegotiated. The first argument is specified in bytes and may have a suffix of `K' `M' or `G' to indicate Kilobytes, Megabytes, or Gigabytes, respectively. The default is between `1G' and `4G' depending on the cipher. The optional second value is specified in seconds and may use any of the units documented in the Sx TIME FORMATS section. The default value for RekeyLimit is default none which means that rekeying is performed after the cipher's default amount of data has been sent or received and no time based rekeying is done.
RevokedKeys
Specifies revoked public keys file, or none to not use one. Keys listed in this file will be refused for public key authentication. Note that if this file is not readable, then public key authentication will be refused for all users. Keys may be specified as a text file, listing one public key per line, or as an OpenSSH Key Revocation List (KRL) as generated by ssh-keygen1. For more information on KRLs, see the KEY REVOCATION LISTS section in ssh-keygen1.
StreamLocalBindMask
Sets the octal file creation mode mask (umask) used when creating a Unix-domain socket file for local or remote port forwarding. This option is only used for port forwarding to a Unix-domain socket file.

The default value is 0177, which creates a Unix-domain socket file that is readable and writable only by the owner. Note that not all operating systems honor the file mode on Unix-domain socket files.

StreamLocalBindUnlink
Specifies whether to remove an existing Unix-domain socket file for local or remote port forwarding before creating a new one. If the socket file already exists and StreamLocalBindUnlink is not enabled, sshd will be unable to forward the port to the Unix-domain socket file. This option is only used for port forwarding to a Unix-domain socket file.

The argument must be yes or no The default is no

StrictModes
Specifies whether sshd(8) should check file modes and ownership of the user's files and home directory before accepting login. This is normally desirable because novices sometimes accidentally leave their directory or files world-writable. The default is yes Note that this does not apply to ChrootDirectory whose permissions and ownership are checked unconditionally.
Subsystem
Configures an external subsystem (e.g. file transfer daemon). Arguments should be a subsystem name and a command (with optional arguments) to execute upon subsystem request.

The command sftp-server implements the SFTP file transfer subsystem.

Alternately the name internal-sftp implements an in-process SFTP server. This may simplify configurations using ChrootDirectory to force a different filesystem root on clients.

By default no subsystems are defined.

SyslogFacility
Gives the facility code that is used when logging messages from sshd(8). The possible values are: DAEMON, USER, AUTH, LOCAL0, LOCAL1, LOCAL2, LOCAL3, LOCAL4, LOCAL5, LOCAL6, LOCAL7. The default is AUTH.
TCPKeepAlive
Specifies whether the system should send TCP keepalive messages to the other side. If they are sent, death of the connection or crash of one of the machines will be properly noticed. However, this means that connections will die if the route is down temporarily, and some people find it annoying. On the other hand, if TCP keepalives are not sent, sessions may hang indefinitely on the server, leaving Qq ghost users and consuming server resources.

The default is yes (to send TCP keepalive messages), and the server will notice if the network goes down or the client host crashes. This avoids infinitely hanging sessions.

To disable TCP keepalive messages, the value should be set to no

Transport
Specifies the transport protocol that should be used by sshd(8). Valid values are ``TCP'' ``SCTP'' ``all.'' The value ``all'' means to listen on TCP and SCTP sockets. The default is to listen only on TCP sockets.
TrustedUserCAKeys
Specifies a file containing public keys of certificate authorities that are trusted to sign user certificates for authentication, or none to not use one. Keys are listed one per line; empty lines and comments starting with `#' are allowed. If a certificate is presented for authentication and has its signing CA key listed in this file, then it may be used for authentication for any user listed in the certificate's principals list. Note that certificates that lack a list of principals will not be permitted for authentication using TrustedUserCAKeys For more details on certificates, see the CERTIFICATES section in ssh-keygen1.
UseDNS
Specifies whether sshd(8) should look up the remote host name, and to check that the resolved host name for the remote IP address maps back to the very same IP address.

If this option is set to no (the default) then only addresses and not host names may be used in ~/.ssh/authorized_keys from and /etc/ssh/sshd_config Match Host directives.

UsePAM
Enables the Pluggable Authentication Module interface. If set to yes this will enable PAM authentication using ChallengeResponseAuthentication and PasswordAuthentication in addition to PAM account and session module processing for all authentication types.

Because PAM challenge-response authentication usually serves an equivalent role to password authentication, you should disable either PasswordAuthentication or ChallengeResponseAuthentication.

If UsePAM is enabled, you will not be able to run sshd(8) as a non-root user. The default is no

VersionAddendum
Optionally specifies additional text to append to the SSH protocol banner sent by the server upon connection. The default is none
X11DisplayOffset
Specifies the first display number available for sshd(8)Ns's X11 forwarding. This prevents sshd from interfering with real X11 servers. The default is 10.
X11Forwarding
Specifies whether X11 forwarding is permitted. The argument must be yes or no The default is no

When X11 forwarding is enabled, there may be additional exposure to the server and to client displays if the sshd(8) proxy display is configured to listen on the wildcard address (see X11UseLocalhost ) though this is not the default. Additionally, the authentication spoofing and authentication data verification and substitution occur on the client side. The security risk of using X11 forwarding is that the client's X11 display server may be exposed to attack when the SSH client requests forwarding (see the warnings for ForwardX11 in ssh_config5). A system administrator may have a stance in which they want to protect clients that may expose themselves to attack by unwittingly requesting X11 forwarding, which can warrant a no setting.

Note that disabling X11 forwarding does not prevent users from forwarding X11 traffic, as users can always install their own forwarders.

X11UseLocalhost
Specifies whether sshd(8) should bind the X11 forwarding server to the loopback address or to the wildcard address. By default, sshd binds the forwarding server to the loopback address and sets the hostname part of the DISPLAY environment variable to localhost This prevents remote hosts from connecting to the proxy display. However, some older X11 clients may not function with this configuration. X11UseLocalhost may be set to no to specify that the forwarding server should be bound to the wildcard address. The argument must be yes or no The default is yes
XAuthLocation
Specifies the full pathname of the xauth(1) program, or none to not use one. The default is /usr/bin/xauth

 

TIME FORMATS

sshd(8) command-line arguments and configuration file options that specify time may be expressed using a sequence of the form: time [qualifier ] where time is a positive integer value and qualifier is one of the following:

Aq none
seconds
s | S
seconds
m | M
minutes
h | H
hours
d | D
days
w | W
weeks

Each member of the sequence is added together to calculate the total time value.

Time format examples:

600
600 seconds (10 minutes)
10m
10 minutes
1h30m
1 hour 30 minutes (90 minutes)

 

TOKENS

Arguments to some keywords can make use of tokens, which are expanded at runtime:

%%
A literal `%'
%F
The fingerprint of the CA key.
%f
The fingerprint of the key or certificate.
%h
The home directory of the user.
%i
The key ID in the certificate.
%K
The base64-encoded CA key.
%k
The base64-encoded key or certificate for authentication.
%s
The serial number of the certificate.
%T
The type of the CA key.
%t
The key or certificate type.
%u
The username.

AuthorizedKeysCommand accepts the tokens %%, %f, %h, %k, %t, and %u.

AuthorizedKeysFile accepts the tokens %%, %h, and %u.

AuthorizedPrincipalsCommand accepts the tokens %%, %F, %f, %h, %i, %K, %k, %s, %T, %t, and %u.

AuthorizedPrincipalsFile accepts the tokens %%, %h, and %u.

ChrootDirectory accepts the tokens %%, %h, and %u.  

FILES

/etc/ssh/sshd_config
Contains configuration data for sshd(8). This file should be writable by root only, but it is recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable.

 

SEE ALSO

sftp-server8, sshd(8)  

AUTHORS

An -nosplit OpenSSH is a derivative of the original and free ssh 1.2.12 release by An Tatu Ylonen . An Aaron Campbell , Bob Beck , Markus Friedl , Niels Provos , An Theo de Raadt and An Dug Song removed many bugs, re-added newer features and created OpenSSH. An Markus Friedl contributed the support for SSH protocol versions 1.5 and 2.0. An Niels Provos and An Markus Friedl contributed support for privilege separation.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
TIME FORMATS
TOKENS
FILES
SEE ALSO
AUTHORS


Please read "Why adblockers are bad".



Other free services
toURL.org
Shorten long
URLs to short
links like
http://tourl.org/2
tourl.org
.
Reverse DNS lookup
Find out which hostname(s)
resolve to a
given IP or other hostnames for the server
www.reversednslookup.org
rdf newsfeed | rss newsfeed | Atom newsfeed
- Powered by LeopardCMS - Running on Gentoo -
Copyright 2004-2017 Sascha Nitsch Unternehmensberatung UG(haftungsbeschränkt)
Valid XHTML1.1 : Valid CSS : buttonmaker
- Level Triple-A Conformance to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 -
- Copyright and legal notices -
Time to create this page: 3.5 ms