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Bind-Chroot-Howto (Debian)

Version 1.0

Author: Falko Timme

Last edited 02/03/2005

This document describes how to install the DNS server Bind on Debian so that it runs out of a chroot jail for security reasons.

This howto is meant as a practical guide; it does not cover the theoretical backgrounds. They are treated in a lot of other documents in the web.

This document comes without warranty of any kind!

Install Bind And Chroot It

apt-get install bind9

For security reasons we want to run BIND chrooted so we have to do the following steps:

/etc/init.d/bind9 stop

Edit the startup script /etc/init.d/bind9 so that the daemon will run as the unprivileged user 'nobody', chrooted to /var/lib/named. Modify the line: OPTS="" so that it reads OPTS="-u nobody -t /var/lib/named":


#!/bin/sh
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
# for a chrooted server: "-u nobody -t /var/lib/named"
OPTS="-u nobody -t /var/lib/named"
test -x /usr/sbin/named || exit 0
case "$1" in
start)
echo -n "Starting domain name service: named"
start-stop-daemon --start --quiet
--pidfile /var/run/named.pid --exec /usr/sbin/named -- $OPTS
echo "."
;;
stop)
echo -n "Stopping domain name service: named"
/usr/sbin/rndc stop
echo "."
;;
reload)
/usr/sbin/rndc reload
;;
restart|force-reload)
$0 stop
sleep 2
$0 start
;;
*)
echo "Usage: /etc/init.d/bind {start|stop|reload|restart|force-reload}" >&2
exit 1
;;
esac
exit 0

Create the necessary directories under /var/lib:

mkdir -p /var/lib/named/etc
mkdir /var/lib/named/dev
mkdir -p /var/lib/named/var/cache/bind
mkdir /var/lib/named/var/run

Then move the config directory from /etc to /var/lib/named/etc:

mv /etc/bind /var/lib/named/etc

Create a symlink to the new config directory from the old location (to avoid problems when bind is upgraded in the future):

ln -s /var/lib/named/etc/bind /etc/bind

Make null and random devices, and fix permissions of the directories:

mknod /var/lib/named/dev/null c 1 3
mknod /var/lib/named/dev/random c 1 8
chmod 666 /var/lib/named/dev/null /var/lib/named/dev/random
chown -R nobody:nogroup /var/lib/named/var/*
chown -R nobody:nogroup /var/lib/named/etc/bind

We need to modify the startup script /etc/init.d/sysklogd of sysklogd so that we can still get important messages logged to the system logs. Modify the line: SYSLOGD="" so that it reads: SYSLOGD="-a /var/lib/named/dev/log":

#! /bin/sh
# /etc/init.d/sysklogd: start the system log daemon.
PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin
pidfile=/var/run/syslogd.pid
binpath=/sbin/syslogd
test -x $binpath || exit 0
# Options for start/restart the daemons
# For remote UDP logging use SYSLOGD="-r"
#
SYSLOGD="-a /var/lib/named/dev/log"
create_xconsole()
{
if [ ! -e /dev/xconsole ]; then
mknod -m 640 /dev/xconsole p
else
chmod 0640 /dev/xconsole
fi
chown root.adm /dev/xconsole
}
running()
{
# No pidfile, probably no daemon present
#
if [ ! -f $pidfile ]
then
return 1
fi
pid=`cat $pidfile`
# No pid, probably no daemon present
#
if [ -z "$pid" ]
then
return 1
fi
cmd=`cat /proc/$pid/cmdline | tr "\000" "
"|head -1`
# No syslogd?
#
if [ "$cmd" != "$binpath" ]
then
return 1
fi
return 0
}
case "$1" in
start)
echo -n "Starting system log daemon: syslogd"
create_xconsole
start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --exec $binpath -- $SYSLOGD
echo "."
;;
stop)
echo -n "Stopping system log daemon: syslogd"
start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
echo "."
;;
reload|force-reload)
start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --signal 1 --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
;;
restart)
echo -n "Stopping system log daemon: syslogd"
start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
echo "."
sleep 1
echo -n "Starting system log daemon: syslogd"
start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --exec $binpath -- $SYSLOGD
echo "."
;;
reload-or-restart)
if running
then
start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --signal 1 --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
else
start-stop-daemon --start --quiet --exec $binpath -- $SYSLOGD
fi
;;
*)
echo "Usage: /etc/init.d/sysklogd {start|stop|reload|restart|force-reload|reload-or-restart}"
exit 1
esac
exit 0

Restart the logging daemon:

/etc/init.d/sysklogd restart

Start up BIND, and check /var/log/syslog for any errors:

/etc/init.d/bind9 start

Good luck!



From http://www.falkotimme.com/howtos/debian_bind_chroot/index.php


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